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Direct indicators of social cohesion are “membership rates of organizations and civic participation” and “levels of trust” (in other people). Proxies for this metric are income distribution and ethnic heterogeneity1. Social cohesion is seen as a society-level issue while social capital is micro‐level focused. Grootaert et al., 2004, have developed a guide for Measuring Social Capital with household surveys.
1Easterly et al., 2006